Search for the root causes of nuclear disasters in six landmark nuclear accidents in history

Recently, Chang 'an Street Reading Club and Guangdong People's Publishing House jointly held the "Exploring the Future of Nuclear Energy in the Fukushima Crisis - Atom and Ashes" new book sharing meeting. Professor Zhou Tao, Vice Chairman of the China Nuclear Industry Education Society, Director of the Department of Nuclear Science and Technology of Southeast University, doctoral supervisor, full-time director of China General Nuclear Power Group, adjunct professor of Southern University of Science and Technology and Xiamen University, Professor Yin Xiong, researcher level senior engineer and Doctor, led the book.

Two experts in the field of nuclear energy research and nuclear energy industry, through video link, from both academic and industrial aspects, on whether nuclear power plants are safe, why nuclear leakage accidents occur, what impact on our lives, China's nuclear technology development and other issues of common concern to the public, bring authoritative and detailed interpretation.

Professor Yin Xiong believes that it is necessary to define the concept first, conventional nuclear power plants discharge nuclear wastewater, is treated and harmless to the environment, and the nuclear sewage discharged by Japan contains a large number of radioactive substances, which will cause great harm to the environment. The two concepts should not be confused, let alone questioned about the safety of nuclear power plants. He believes that the Japanese government has violated the three basic ethics of responsibility, technology and fraternity in this incident, which has had a psychological impact on the people of the Pacific coast region and caused great harm to the global environment and Marine life.

The Chinese government is a responsible government. On the one hand, it will continue to exert pressure on the Japanese government, including politically, economically and diplomatically, to urge the Japanese government to comply with the call of the people of the world and stop the discharge of the remaining nuclear sewage. On the other hand, the relevant functional departments and enterprises of the Chinese government will strictly test the water quality, Marine life and seafood in the relevant waters, especially the Marine food that may be placed on the tables of the Chinese people, and will take corresponding measures even if there is a small problem. At the same time, he reminded the general public that buying iodized salt will not help prevent nuclear contamination and damage. Medical iodine tablets in nuclear power plants will only be used in the event of major radioactive material leakage accidents, and there is no need for ordinary people to take them.

Regarding the safety of nuclear power plants, Professor Zhou Tao believes that the reason why nuclear power plant accidents are concerned by the public is related to the low risk rate and high risk characteristics of nuclear power itself. In fact, for more than 400 reactors in operation in the world, major nuclear accidents have only been in the single digit for decades, and the probability is not high, and the fatality rate of nuclear accidents is far less than traffic accidents. Or the energy industry other than nuclear power. However, the safety of nuclear power technology itself is sufficiently guaranteed, he took the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in the United States as an example, and the research results after many years showed that the cancer prevalence of local people did not increase after the smoking factor, which can be seen that its safety. The pressurized water reactor used in the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant is completely consistent with the technical route adopted by China. Most of China's current reactors are pressurized water reactors, which are designed with containment vessels and are safe enough to ensure safety.

Nuclear safety is an important part of national security and people's security. As a person in the nuclear energy industry, it is still a long way to go to popularize the development of nuclear energy to the public. With public support and people's understanding, nuclear power can move forward better, faster and healthier. Nuclear power governance, nuclear safety governance, is an important part of the modernization, to ensure that nuclear power is foolproof, to eliminate the public because of the nuclear power technology is not familiar with the doubts, and then increase social support for nuclear power recognition, to create a good atmosphere for nuclear power.

In the double background of energy crisis and environmental crisis, nuclear energy is a very good alternative energy, but the danger of nuclear radiation is self-evident, as Professor Proloki, the author of the book "Atom and Ashes", said: "When it is safe, nuclear energy is the cleanmost energy in the world; In the event of an accident, nuclear power is the dirtiest energy source in the world." So how do we deal with this contradiction when it comes to developing nuclear energy? How to develop nuclear power more safely?

Professor Yin pointed out that nuclear power is comparable to other forms of new energy, including solar and wind, in terms of environmental benefits. As the known energy source with the highest energy density, it is also a low-carbon energy source, which is irreplaceable in strategy. The technology maturity of nuclear power, economy and general safety have been verified in the history of nuclear power development, large-scale use of atomic energy technology is completely feasible. Although nuclear radiation is a threat, mankind has mastered the basic methods to avoid this threat.

Professor Zhou then introduced that China has made great progress in the research and development, application and autonomy of new reactors: reactor technology is gradually realizing the leap from the second generation to the third generation, research on nuclear fusion is also increasing, and private capital has also appeared in the nuclear energy field, and the entire industry is full of vitality.

The two experts finally discussed the six nuclear accidents described in the book "Atoms and Ashes", and agreed that although several major nuclear accidents in human history have environmental factors, the most critical factor is the human factor, which is not mature technology, management defects, government supervision is lacking, and the safety awareness of practitioners is indifferent. In the context of the general environment, there are also reckless and reckless behaviors that ignore safety facilities and safety management for performance, and these problems are generally due to the lack of nuclear safety culture. Fortunately, these devastating nuclear accidents have also encouraged us to think about and improve nuclear safety measures, improve safety standards and enhance safety awareness, and there is every possibility that the nuclear industry can prevent problems before they occur.

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