The status and function of Chinese local Chronicles in historical records

On the origin of China's historical records, we should be the most ancient books and spring and Autumn. Zhang Xuecheng (1738-1801) said that the six classics are all history, that the ancients did not have a hard time to understand, and the six classics were all the rules of the previous king. Gong Zizhen (1792-1841) believed that the Six Classics were the grandsons of Zhou history. The I Ching is the history of divination, the Shujing is the history of recording speech, and the Spring and Autumn Annals is the history of recording events. The national style is the historian from the folk poetry and to pay the music, the elegant song is the historian from the scholar-official, the ritual is the law of the generation, all belong to the historian. In this way, it is related to history. Later, the works of the convention, general convention, and general examination of various special legal documents were also included in historical records, which adequately shows that when we want to study the comprehensive culture of society, we will naturally expand the scope of collection of historical materials. Otherwise, they can only be confined to the small circle of political history. In any case, according to the increasingly sophisticated view of today's book classification, Shang Shu and Spring and Autumn annals should always be precious historical records in ancient times.

Since Sima Qian wrote historical records and Ban Gu and his son wrote Hanshu in the Han Dynasty, there has been a distinction between classics and history in the concept of ordinary people. During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, and the early Tang Dynasties, the private practice of history was flourishing, and there were more and more poems and essays, and more and more books collected. Originally according to the content of the book classification as seven slightly, to the Jin Dynasty and there are four divisions. The book of war, techniques, techniques into the sub-section, poetry and Fu into the collection, into the classics, history, Zi, collection four. The meaning of this classification seems to be that the book is the great origin of the nation, the history is the sign of social and cultural development, the son is the reason of individual exploration, and the set is the emotional expression of the spirit of individual freedom. The history of classics is high in the world, and the Oriental culture is somehow cast into the characteristics of academic spirit that pay attention to the general and comprehensive, only seek to accommodate each other, despise the abstract division and opposition, and skills are not respected in academia, so the scholars and scholars intertwine the history of classics, and even the history of literature can not be separated. Until the Qing Dynasty Qianlong opened the museum to reorganize the four libraries, the classification is still the same, the history Department listed 15 categories of subheadings, and only 150 kinds of local records. Although there are many historical records, later generations can not be organized into a complete and systematic Chinese general history and cultural history. In the 19th year of the Republic of China, Qu Pingzhi sighed in the preface to the draft of the local annals: "There is a reason why our people cannot understand our national nature, and there is no real historical reason." History does not know the trace of all social activity, and focuses only on the outstanding deeds of one or two persons, just as I know today that the thoughts and actions of those who circle around me are much the same, and that those who are a little further away from me are glued to hundreds of years ago and have changed little." Yu Shaosong also said in Preface 3 of the draft of the Local Annals: "In the field of national history today, there is no special department, and the genre of works should also be slightly changed. It is necessary to use the example of the general aspiration, covering the local social situation, and not focusing on the central politics, which is reasonable, of course, and also when the situation is inevitable, if it depends on the local aspiration. In recent times, although politics has changed repeatedly, we have not been able to harmonized with human rights. National affairs 臲卼 are the reason for this." From this point of view, the accumulation of historical materials in our country is indeed a lot, but it is a pity that the study of history needs to be reviewed again!

Since Tang and Song dynasties, the compilation of historical records has evolved a lot, and the evolution of official cultivation has been the royal records in the form of Chronicles, the official history in the form of Chronicles, the Canon of etiquette, and the local records with emphasis on geography. There are also the formal history of the chronicle, the history of the other, the chronicle of the end of the matter as the main line, the general examination of the annals, the special history of the Canon, the genre and the content have improved. History also gave birth to two outstanding figures. One is Liu Zhiji (661-721) in the Tang Dynasty, he took the historical books made by the family, elucidates the examples, discusses the benefits of the disease, and has survived the history of the book, unique commentary. The other was Zhang Xuecheng (1738-1801), who had compiled records for Hezhou, Yongqing and Bozhou, and had worked as an aide to Bi Yuan, compiling the general records of Hubei. He was the first person to attach importance to local aspirations, experience the matter personally, and put forward specific suggestions. Both men are worthy historians.

Since human beings have the concept of time, they no longer cut the chains of the past, present and future, which is the root of historical interest. With the concept of space, and thirst for geographical knowledge. The evolution of life has made the system of cultural relics increasingly complex. The discussion of history extends from geometric straight lines to horizontal stretches. China's land is large, the population is large, the mountain climate is different, the transportation in the past is far less convenient than in the recent days, and it is easier to form local characteristics. It is obvious that a national history compiled by only a few people cannot cover the whole social phenomenon in various places. With the development of The Times, local Chronicles were initiated in the Ming Dynasty and flourished in the Qing Dynasty, and have now become the important corner of historical records. This is why we want to introduce local records.

Since the compilation of local records was advocated in the Ming Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty was prosperous. Under the cover of Chinese studies, the author first pays attention to the history of classics, and then adds the afterglow of the history of literature, and the local records collected in the library in the early years have a specific level. In fact, with the encouragement of the Government's general orders, all the historical materials collected by local masters are trustworthy and are not limited to the official collections. According to Zhu Shijia's statistics, there were 4,655 kinds of local Chronicles compiled in the Qing Dynasty, 1,286 in the Kangxi period and 1,024 in the Qianlong period. Zhili has the largest number of 403 species, while Sichuan, Jiangxi, Shandong, Henan, Shaanxi and Zhejiang each have more than 300 species. In 1930, he counted 4,912 local Chronicles in China. In 1935, the total number of species was 5,832, 93,237 volumes, 730 species were identified in 1938, and 700 more were identified in 1958. This brings the total to 7,262 species. Compared with the official history, the volumes are so numerous that no one can really read them all with the energy of his life. But we needn't have done that. As long as you know that this is a historically unexplored mountain forest, there are many treasures to be discovered. Now, according to Gu Jiegang's preface to the Chinese Local Chronicles, the main points of the general local Chronicles are as follows: Geography - evolution, territory, area, division; Politics - establishment, staffing, troop preparation, memorabilia; Economy - household registration, land taxes, goods, tariffs; Society - customs, dialects, temples, auspicious differences; Literature - people, art, stone, historical sites; It is clear that the annals are extensive in content and that the materials they draw from archives, letters and stone tablets are very credible. It is only true to say that "to correct history, the correct history shows its inadequacy". This means that local Chronicles have also become an important part of historical records in terms of quantity and content.

In the 19th year of the Republic of China, Qu published an examination of the local Chronicles, including both the Chronicles of Jiangsu, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, listing the dates of compilation, the names of the authors, the history of the old Chronicles, and the number of volumes, as well as distinguishing styles and commenting on the achievements and losses, paying special attention to the special history, which was a document to guide the study of the local Chronicles. In addition, in the 20th year of the Republic of China, the local Chronicles collected by the Imperial Palace were catalogued and published, and in the 22nd year, after the merger of the Peking Library and Beihai Library, more than 3,800 local Chronicles were collected and catalogued. In 23 years, Zhu Shijia compiled a comprehensive catalogue of local Chronicles, listing more than 5,000 kinds. Zhu Shijia saw only three thousand kinds in Peiping, and later visited the provincial catalogs of Hanfenlou in Shanghai, the Xujiahui Catholic Church Collection, Jinling University, Nanyang Middle School, Sun Yat-sen University, and knew that Wang Shoushan had more than one thousand kinds of catalogs, and obtained the catalogs of the Library of Congress, the Japanese Cabinet Library, the Imperial Library of Japan, and so on, thus completing an impressive comprehensive catalog. What is amazing is that the Far East Library in Paris and Vietnam abroad, Harvard University in the United States also has a collection of Chinese local records, and the church school libraries in China are interested in other records, and the spirit of Chinese and Western historiography in this era can also be glimpsed.

The historians of our country in the past seemed to be confined to the form of historical materials, their spirit had fallen into the circle of rules of chaos and decline, and they attached particular importance to political history, and dared not boldly explain the historical facts of various aspects of human nature. But today, after the baptism of science, we must make it clear that: (1) The study of history by words and antiquities does not fully reproduce the facts of the past. Moreover, every historical fact has its own special aspect, which can be reproduced only by our own experience and intuition. (ii) Science can grasp the same thing, precisely because we can control its reproduction, can find its unity and universality or theorems, laws, but history is not simple, we must try to pay attention to its special aspects. (iii) Modern historiography should cover a wide range of political, economic, social, religious, artistic and even literary fields. (iv) The historical researcher must have a philosophical temperament, engage in the scientific method, and obtain artistic results. (v) Without an explanation of the peculiarities of historical facts, he can only be a collector of historical materials, not a true historian.

We should now know that in addition to the traditional historical records, Chinese history has regional records, and there is another kind of genealogy that is the historical data of clans. These local records and genealogies are sufficient to help historians to study the beginning and end of the state of affairs according to the four factors of man, time, place and matter, and to develop a new historical narrative. In order to meet the needs of The Times and establish a clear and systematic concept, we have tentatively defined the scope of the selected local Chronicles series as the local history of the township, county, prefecture, county and administrative region, and various special Chronicles describing one thing and one thing (such as Lu Shui Annals and Lushan Annals).

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